Stronghold Przemyśl

Fortifications and history of Stronghold Przemyśl
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The 4th Bastion (Sevastopol, the Crimea).

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The Google Map of Stronhold Przemyśl (http://www.twierdzaprzemysl.org/).

The traditional map of Strohhold Przemyśl

The Crimean War should be considered the catalyst for building the first fortification of Przemyśl. Russian expansion in the Balkans presented a threat to Austrian plans in this region. Despite this, Austria kept enemy neutrality. Although Habsburg Monarchy didn't support any side of conflict, they didn't let Russian armies to pass by their territory. The temporary breach of international realations and the threat of war began bulding earhworks which surrounded Przemyśl.

The monument of Sevastpol's defensors.

The bulwark S341/2 in Prałkowce. One of the rare extant forts which were built during the Crimean period of building Przemyśl fortress. These types of bulwarks were made on heptagonal layout. They were made of ground and wood (palisade and blockhouse). There were grounds for cannons on the banks. When the Russian threat had passed, some of the bulwark were leveled, another become substructures for more technologically complicated forts in the future.

Another reason for building fortifications in Galicia were events of The Spring of Nations (1848-49). During the revolution the Austrian governement called the Russian Army for help. The Russians found it easy to marched on Great Hungarian Plain. The Paskiewicz Army passed through the Carpatian passes, which were deprived of fortifications defendind the roads. That was Przemyśl where Russians found the shortest way to Hungary. This is why Przemyśl was called "The Gate of Hungary".

Józef Bem the Polish general of artillery and Supreme Commander of Hungarian Armies during The Spring of Nations in Hungary 1848 - 49 (Bem's monument in Budapest, Hungary).

Another danger which the Spring of Nations caused for Habsburg Monarchy were rebellions of their bondsmen. Austrian governament wanted to prevent them by bulding citadels in the future. Citadels were intended to preponderate over the main cities of monarchy. Theirs garissons, especialy artilerry, could easly compel peace in rebellious cities. There is smaller werk from Lwów Citadel on the picture.

The Budapest Citadel was made to serve for similar goals. Its design faults and imminent transformation of thr Habsburg Monarchy into a constitutional, dualistic monarchy, caused that it never became a guard of ancient regime.

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