The bulwark S341/2 in Prałkowce. One of the rare extant forts which were built during the Crimean period of building Przemyśl fortress. These types of bulwarks were made on heptagonal layout. They were made of ground and wood (palisade and blockhouse). There were grounds for cannons on the banks. When the Russian threat had passed, some of the bulwark were leveled, another become substructures for more technologically complicated forts in the future.
The bulwark S XIVb "Hurko". The another example of wooden- ground fort which was built during the Crimean period of bulding Przemyśl fortress.
The monument of Sevastpol's defensors.
The Bastion (Sevastopol, the Crimea).
8 Things You May Not Know About the Crimean War - Views of the ruined interior of the Great Redan, one of the six main redoubts which defended Sevastopol
The Wawel Castle is an example of citadel. But in this instance, being the guard of peace was additional purpose. The Austrian fortifications were a permanent zone of forts at the begining of their construction. They were a ring of forts guarded Cracow against the outside threat from so-called Polish Kingdom which was the Russian district.
Austrian began to fortify Cracow in 1850. This works in Lesser Poland had preceded for several years constraction of Przemyśl Stronghold. Some researchers think that intention of Austrian was to control their new conquest. Monarchy had gained Cracow in 1846. It seems that the real purpose for constraction of new stronghold was necessity of defense tracks leading off Wiena. To control the city, Austria needed only some forts.
The Hill of Execution in Lwów (Kleparów). It was the place of execution of Polish rebel leaders during the Spring of Nations in Galicia (1846). Austrian executed here Teofil Wiśniowski and Józef Kapuściński in 1847. The author of monument from 1895 was Julian Markowski.
The Budapest Citadel was made to serve for similar goals. Its design faults and imminent transformation of thr Habsburg Monarchy into a constitutional, dualistic monarchy, caused that it never became a guard of ancient regime.
Another danger which the Spring of Nations caused for Habsburg Monarchy were rebellions of their bondsmen. Austrian governament wanted to prevent them by bulding citadels in the future. Citadels were intended to preponderate over the main cities of monarchy. Theirs garissons, especialy artilerry, could easly compel peace in rebellious cities. There is smaller werk from Lwów Citadel on the picture.
The traditional map of Strohhold Przemyśl
The Google Map of Stronhold Przemyśl (http://www.twierdzaprzemysl.org/).
Józef Bem the Polish general of artillery and Supreme Commander of Hungarian Armies during The Spring of Nations in Hungary 1848 - 49 (Bem's monument in Budapest, Hungary).
French Romantic Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix, “Liberty leading the People”, the Louvre. The painting became a symbol of an era in France.