Trust vs Mistrust
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs Guilt
Industry vs Inferiority
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According to Erikson, depicting an age range of one to three years old, children of this age range experience the crisis of autonomy vs. shame & doubt. This is the second stage of his theory that defines individuals as being focused on developing a greater sense of self-control. It is during early childhood that children begin to learn more about themselves and qualities/ values that they believe makes them who they are.
Scaffolding assumes that learning occures in the 'zone' specified in Vygotsky's (1966) ZPD theory. It is the space between what a child is capable of accomplishing individually and what they can accomplish in collaboration with experienced others. The approach to scaffolded learning in this pin is an example of Rogoff's (1990) 'guided participation'. It allows the educator to guide a child to competency through modelling, questioning, planning and explaining.
PIAGET-COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY/ORIGIN: Jean Piaget's idea of cognitive development showed that one's mental development can be separated into 4 stages. EXPLANATION: As an infant, one only understands what it sees (if it cannon be seen, it doesn't exist). As he/she gains knowledge, at the age 12 and onward, he/she will be able to truly grasp the world as it is. EXAMPLE: We could tell Robert was no longer in the Preoperational Stage when he could tell that one cookie was equal two halves of a cookie.
REPIN: Comparing theories of learning Piaget and Vygotsky. Comment: The individual versus the social aspect of learning. It funny how so many students are receiving their instruction on-line, which at least pragmatically makes interaction a challenge, I wonder what these theorists would say about this.