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Map showing the locations of the Dagu fortifications defended by the Chinese forces (imperial forces and Boxers) at the Northwest Fort, North Fort and South Fort.  Map also shows the locations of 12 ships attempting to eliminate these forts, enabling the troops to provide relief to the Beijing legations.

Map showing the locations of the Dagu fortifications defended by the Chinese forces (imperial forces and Boxers) at the Northwest Fort, North Fort and South Fort. Map also shows the locations of 12 ships attempting to eliminate these forts, enabling the troops to provide relief to the Beijing legations.

Chinese Imperial Troops during the Boxer Boxer Rebellion (1898-1900).

Chinese Imperial Troops during the Boxer Boxer Rebellion (1898-1900).

The Boxers bombarded Tianjin in June 1900, and Dong Fuxiang's Muslim troops attacked the British Admiral Seymour and his expeditionary force.

The Boxers bombarded Tianjin in June 1900, and Dong Fuxiang's Muslim troops attacked the British Admiral Seymour and his expeditionary force.

The Eight-Nation Alliance in Beijing following the defeat of the Boxer Rebellion. Immediately identifiable flags in picture: Italy, France, Kaiserliche Marine, Imperial Russian Navy, and Japan, 1900.

The Eight-Nation Alliance in Beijing following the defeat of the Boxer Rebellion. Immediately identifiable flags in picture: Italy, France, Kaiserliche Marine, Imperial Russian Navy, and Japan, 1900.

Boxer soldiers, dressed in black and carrying traditional weapons

Boxer soldiers, dressed in black and carrying traditional weapons

French troops of the China Relief Expedition “Boxer Rebellion”, marching, circa 1900.

French troops of the China Relief Expedition “Boxer Rebellion”, marching, circa 1900.

Foreign troops engaging the Chinese Boxer forces.  By 1900, the Qing dynasty, which had ruled China for more than two centuries, was crumbling and Chinese culture was under assault by powerful and unfamiliar religious and secular culture.

Foreign troops engaging the Chinese Boxer forces. By 1900, the Qing dynasty, which had ruled China for more than two centuries, was crumbling and Chinese culture was under assault by powerful and unfamiliar religious and secular culture.

【藏品】英军“1st <wbr>CHINESE <wbr>REGIMENT”(华勇营)帽徽

【藏品】英军“1st <wbr>CHINESE <wbr>REGIMENT”(华勇营)帽徽

Japanese troops march during the Boxer Protocol.

Japanese troops march during the Boxer Protocol.

A photo of young Boxers.  Ultimately, the Boxers converged on Beijing with the slogan "support the Qing, exterminate the foreigners." They forced foreigners and Chinese Christians to seek refuge in the Legation Quarter. In response to reports of armed foreign landings and demands, the initially hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi, urged by the conservatives of the Imperial Court, supported the Boxers and on June 21 authorized war on foreign powers.

A photo of young Boxers. Ultimately, the Boxers converged on Beijing with the slogan "support the Qing, exterminate the foreigners." They forced foreigners and Chinese Christians to seek refuge in the Legation Quarter. In response to reports of armed foreign landings and demands, the initially hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi, urged by the conservatives of the Imperial Court, supported the Boxers and on June 21 authorized war on foreign powers.

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