History of philosophy
Hypatia- Philosopher, astronomer, mathematician, inventor of the astrolabe, advocate against religious repression and violence. Fearing her strong feminism, intellect, political power and influence, early christians stripped her naked, dragged her body through the street, and stoned her to death. The mob then burned her body along with the first university and largest library of the time. Most of her work has been lost; her discoveries would not be known again until 1200 years later.
Hypatia AD (350–370–March 415) was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher in Roman Egypt who was the first historically noted woman in mathematics. She was of the intellectual school of the 3rd century thinker Plotinus which encouraged logic and mathematical study in place of empirical enquiry. Around AD 400, she became head of the Platonist school at Alexandria. Hypatia was murdered by a Christian mob after being accused of witchcraft and godlessness and of causing religious turmoil.
Justinian I was a Byzantine emperor from 527-565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's power by reconquering the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. 1 of the most important figures of late antiquity & possibly the last Roman emperor to speak Latin as a first language, Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the early Middle Ages. The impact of his administration extended far beyond the boundaries of his time & domain.
Damascius was head of the Neoplatonist academy in Athens when the Emperor Justinian shut its doors forever in 529. His work, Problems and Solutions Concerning First Principles, is the last surviving independent philosophical treatise from the Late Academy. Its survey of Neoplatonist metaphysics, discussion of transcendence, and compendium of late antique theologies, make it unique among all extant works of late antique philosophy.
Julian "The Apostate" was the 63rd Roman Emperor from 361-363. A cousin of Constantius II, he was made Caesar of the west in 355 by Constantius II, although later the relationship between the two verged on war. After the death of Constantius II, he became the sole emperor, until he was killed in battle against the Persians. He was the last non-Christian ruler of the Roman Empire and attempted to revive the pagan religions, earning him the later nickname "The Apostate."
Proclus (c. 412 – 485) was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, one of the last major Classical philosophers. He set forth one of the most elaborate and fully developed systems of Neoplatonism. He stands near the end of the classical development of philosophy, and was very influential on Western medieval philosophy (Greek and Latin) as well as Islamic thought. "Wherever there is number, there is beauty." Proclus, quoted by M. Kline, Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times.
PROCLUS LYCAEUS Πρόκλος ὁ Διάδοχος "the Successor" (8 Feb 412–17 Apr 485); one of the last major classical philosophers. He set forth one of the most elaborate and fully developed systems of Neoplatonism. Very influential on Western medieval philosophy (Greek and Latin) and Islamic thought. He did an important analysis of Euclid's Elements, pointing out the purpose of the golden ratio.
Iamblichus of Syria (c. 245 – 325) a Syrian philosopher, a major figure in the philosophical school of Neoplatonism and the founder of its Syrian branch. Though only his minor philosophical works have survived, the basic elements of Iamblichus’ system can be understood from the references to his teachings in the writings of the 5th-century philosopher Proclus. He wrote, in Greek, the treatise known under the Latin name De Mysteriis (On the Egyptian Mysteries, 1821)..
The godfather of mind mapping as we know it was arguably Porphyry of Tyre, a Greek philosopher and logician born in 234 CE and inventor of the Porphyrian tree. Porphyry’s tree was such an effective introduction to Aristotelian Categories that by the Middle Ages, it had become a standard part of religious education. The tree starts with a main category and proceeds through each sub-category until it reaches the logical conclusion.
Plotinus, a neo-Platonist, thought humans were so far removed from God that they could not hope to comprehend or even speak, of him in any substantial way. He therefore thought religion could only be understood by mystical experience and our words about God must be framed in the negative e.g. "God is not a man" or used as strictly metaphorical.
Four humors and what is medical context for understanding them . Hot, Dry , Wet & cold , hot would determine what is wrong with you blood , wet is phlegm water Cold black bible - Latin scala natural literally " latter stair way of nature is a concept deprived from Plato Aristotle Plotinus and proclus , further developed during the Middle Ages
Plotinus was born in Lycopolis in Egypt. On a military campaign to Persia, he encountered a variety of Persian and Indian ideas that he blended with Plato's philosophy: God is the supreme being, the absolute unity, and is indescribable. Any words (even the ones I just used) imply some limitation. God is best referred to as “the One,” eternal and infinite. Creation, Plotinus believed, is a continuous outflow from the One, with each “spasm” of creation a little less perfect than the one before.
Plotinus (Lycopolis, 204) was a major philosopher of the Platonic tradition during the ancient world. In his philosophy there are three principles: the One, the Intellect, and the Soul. Historians of the 19th century invented the term Neoplatonism and applied it to him and his philosophy which was influential in Late Antiquity. His metaphysical writings have inspired centuries of Pagan, Christian, Jewish, Islamic and Gnostic metaphysicians and mystics.
Plutarch of Chaeronea (46-c.122): influential Greek philosopher and author, well known for his biographies and his moral treatises. Bust, believed to represent Plutarch It is not overstated to say that, together with Augustine of Hippo and Aristotle of Stagira, Plutarch of Chaeronea is the most influential ancient philosopher.