The crucifix that the magistrate shows to Meursault is part of a religious philosophy. But it is one that Meursault does not believe in and he is an atheist and finds God meaningless to human existence.
Nietzsche nihilistic aphorism “God is Dead” is the starting point for his wider conviction that there were no truths or certainties In this uncertain void, true meaning came in reaching for an inner-Ubermensch, where we should and must create our own.
Descartes’ famous quotation has almost become a cliché: an overused aphorism thrown in wild association at even the word ‘Philosophy’, but it’s beauty lies in its bold simplicity. It is most frequently translated as: “I think, therefore I am”.
Plato’s Philosopher King is an idealistic monarch who does what is in the interests of his subjects. However, he is not a slave to democracy - but should and would pursue ‘higher ideals’, even if at odds with the wants of his people.
Descartes’ Substance Dualism maintains that both the mind and body exist as two separate and distinct substances. He argued using Leibniz’s Law - where two identical things must have completely identical properties.