As we’ve seen, Kierkegaard believed that humans exist in one of three spheres, each superior to the other. At the highest sphere, we would no longer need or want the rules, laws and ‘ethics’ of the Universal Sphere and would instead act by a new and.
Popper’s theory of Falsification was an attempt to resolve both Hume’s Problem of Induction and improve on the generally accepted failings of Verificationism. According to the theory, a proposition, theory or hypothesis is only as strong as how far.
Berkeley’s Idealism stated that only two things exist: the mind, and that which the mind perceives What others (philosophers) called ‘matter’ was, for him, identical to our idea. Objects exist insofar as they can be perceived.
#Marx had argued that the boom and bust of Capitalism would eventually self-destruct and would lead to socialism. In response, #keynesian economics maintains that a state should engineer greater public spending through investment. When trade is booming, a government should spend little, when the economy slumps, public spending should go up. #capitalism #keynes #economy #socialism #investment
La Place believed the Newtonian mechanics of his day unavoidably lead to Hard Determinism. His ‘demon’ was a thought experiment where, if a being could know everything about the current state of the world, he could predict the future with 100% certainty (where free will and randomness were illusionary).
James, the American Pragmatist, wrote extensively on truth, religion and mystical experience and believed that truth must 'work' and was measurable in it's 'cash value' i. what consequences a belief led to.
Russell wondered how statements like “The present King of France is bald” can be given a truth value since no such figure exists as a point of reference. His Theory of Descriptions argues that such statements actually contain several separate claims.
wager argued that if you believe in and he exists, you will be rewarded with eternal Even if he does not exist, you have lost nothing in trying - choosing between a possible return of infinite paradise, against finite loss is
Although Lewis and Ewing had paved the way, Bonjour developed what is arguably the most sophisticated and comprehensive account of Coherentism. Coherentism is a Theory of Justification which tries to resolve the question: “what grounds do I have to.